In the 1990s, it wasn’t unusual for people to buy second-to-die life insurance policies to help pay federal estate taxes. However, in 2020, with estate tax exclusions up to $11,400,000 (and rising with the cost-of-living adjustments), fewer people would owe much for estate taxes.
However, IRAs, 401(k)s, and other accounts are still 100% taxable to the individuals, spouses, and their children. The stretch IRA options still exist, but they may go away as Congress may limit stretch IRAs to a maximum of 10 years.
Forbes’ recent article, “3 Ways Life Insurance Can Help Your Estate Plan,” explains that as the IRA is giving income from the RMDs, it may also be added, after tax, to the life insurance policy. If this occurs, it’s even possible that the death benefits could grow in the future, giving a cost-of-living benefit to children. This is one way how life insurance can be used creatively to help your estate plan.
For married couples, one strategy is to consider how life insurance on one individual could be used to pay “conversion tax” at death, using tax-free benefits. When the retiree dies, the spouse beneficiary can then convert all the IRA (taxable money) to a Roth IRA, which is tax-exempt with new, lower income tax rates (37% in 2018-2025 versus 39.6% in 2017 or earlier).
This tax-free death benefit money can be used to pay the taxes on the conversion, letting the surviving beneficiary have a lifetime of tax-exempt income without RMD issues from the Roth IRA. The Social Security income could also be tax-exempt because Roth withdrawals don’t count as “income” in the calculation to see how much of your Social Security is taxed. However, you’d have to be within the threshold for any other combined income.
Life insurance for both individuals (if married) may also be a good idea. If the spouse of the IRA owner dies, the money from the life insurance can be used once again. If this is done in the tax year of the death for married individuals, the tax conversion could be done under “married filing status” before the next year when the individual must use single tax filing status.
Another benefit of the IRA-to-Roth conversion is the passing of Roth IRAs to heirs which could create a lasting legacy if planned well. New life insurance policies that add long-term care features with chronic care and critical care benefits can also provide an extra degree of benefits if one of the insureds has health issues prior to death.
Be sure to watch the tax rates and possible changes. With today’s lower tax rates, this could be very beneficial. Remember that there are usually individual state taxes as well. However, considering all the tax-optimized benefits to spouses and beneficiaries, the long-term tax benefits outweigh the lifetime tax liabilities, especially when you also consider SSI tax benefits for the surviving spouse and no RMD issues.
Life insurance in retirement can help protect, build, and transfer wealth in one of the easiest ways possible. An estate planning attorney can advise you if you’re not certain about where to start with your life insurance needs.
Reference: Forbes (November 15, 2019) “3 Ways Life Insurance Can Help Your Estate Plan”